Chapter2Bwd

# Chapter2Bwd - 74 Chapter Number and Title AT&T Archives...

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Chapter Number and Title JOHN W. TUKEY The Philosopher of Data Analysis He started as a chemist, became a mathematician, and was converted to statistics by what he called “the real problems experience and the real data experience” of war work dur- ing the Second World War. John W. Tukey (1915–2000) came to Princeton University in 1937 to study chemistry but took a doctorate in mathematics in 1939. During the war, he worked on the accuracy of range finders and of gunfire from bombers, among other problems. After the war he divided his time between Princeton and nearby Bell Labs, at that time the world’s leading industrial research group. Tukey devoted much of his attention to the statistical study of messy problems with complex data: the safety of anesthetics used by many doctors in many hospi- tals on many patients, the Kinsey studies of human sexual behavior, monitoring compliance with a nuclear test ban, and air quality and environmental pollution. From this “real problems experience and real data experience,” John Tukey developed exploratory data analysis. He invented some of the tools we have met, such as boxplots and stemplots. More important, he developed a philosophy for data analysis that changed the way statisticians think. In this chapter, as in Chapter 1, the approach we take in examining Tukey was converted to statistics by “the real problems experience and the real data experience” during the Second World War. A T&T Archives

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c h e r a p t 2 The Normal Distributions 2.1 Density Curves and the Normal Distributions 2.2 Standard Normal Calculations Chapter Review
76 Chapter 2 The Normal Distributions ACTIVITY 2A A Fine-Grained Distribution Materials: Sheet of grid paper; salt; can of spray paint; paint easel; newspapers 1. Place the grid paper on the easel with a horizontal fold as shown, at about a 45° angle to the horizontal. Provide a “lip” at the bottom to catch the salt. Place newspaper behind the grid and extending out on all sides so you will not get paint on the easel. ACTIVITY 2B Roll a Normal Distribution Materials: Several marbles, all the same size; two metersticks for a “ramp”; a ruled sheet of paper; a flat table about 4 feet long; carbon paper; Scotch Tape or masking tape 45 ° 2. Pour a stream of salt slowly from a point near the middle of the top edge of the grid. The grains of salt will hop and skip their way down the grid as they collide with one another and bounce left and right. They will accu- mulate at the bottom, piled against the grid, with the smooth profile of a bell-shaped curve, known as a normal distribution. We will learn about the normal distribution in this chapter. 3. Now carefully spray the grid--salt and all--with paint. Then discard the salt. You should be able to easily measure the height of the curve at differ- ent places by simply counting lines on the grid, or you could approximate areas by counting small squares or portions of squares on the grid.

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Chapter2Bwd - 74 Chapter Number and Title AT&T Archives...

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