Some Basic Probability Notation and Terminology
Let A and B be two sets.
1. Suppose every element of a set A also belongs to set B,
then A is called a
subset
of B, or A is said to be contained
in B, which is written as
A
B or B
⊆
⊇
A
2. Two sets are
equal
if they both have the same elements
or, equivalently, if each is contained in the other.
A = B if and only if A
B and B
A
⊆
⊆
3. The statement that an element
a
belongs to a set S is
written
a
∈
S
Here
∈
is the symbol meaning “is an element of “.
4. The
negation
of
a
∈
S, A
B
and
A = B
⊆
are
written
a
∉
S, A
⊄
B
and
A
≠
B
5.
If
A
B
and
A
B,
then we say that A is a
proper set
of A, also written
⊆
≠
A
B.
⊂
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View Full Document6. A set with no elements is called the
empty set
or
null
set
, and is denoted by
7. The
Universal
set
, U, is the set of all things to be
considered in this case.
8. The
complement
of a set A, denoted by
A° or A’ or A
c
is the set of elements that belongs to U but which do not
belong to A.
9. The
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 Fall '08
 O
 Set Theory, Counting, Probability, elements, Empty set

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