chapter 13 2 - Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain...

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Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioning • Hippocampus may also be important for contextual learning • Remembering the detail and context of an event • Suggests that the hippocampus is important in the process of “consolidation”. • Damage to the hippocampus impairs recent learning more than older learning. – The more consolidated a memory becomes, the less it depends on the hippocampus.
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Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioning • Reverberating circuits of neuronal activity were thought to be the mechanisms of consolidation. • Consolidation is also influenced by the passage of time and emotions. – Small to moderate amounts of cortisol activate the amygdala and hippocampus where they enhance storage and consolidation of recent experiences. – Prolonged stress impairs memory.
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Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioning Different kinds of brain damage result in different types of amnesia. Two common types of brain damage include: 1. Korsakoff’s syndrome 2. Alzheimer’s disease
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Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioning Korsakoff’s syndrome – brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency • Impedes the ability of the brain to metabolize glucose. • Leads to a loss of or shrinkage of neurons in the brain. • Often due to chronic alcoholism. • Symptoms include apathy, confusion, and forgetting and confabulation (taking guesses to fill in gaps in memory).
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Functioning Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a gradually progressive loss of memory often occurring in old age. • Affects 50% of people over 85. • Early onset seems to be influenced by genes, but 99% of cases are late onset. • About half of all patients with late onset
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chapter 13 2 - Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain...

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