Chapter 15 II - Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disorder...

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Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by deteriorating ability to function in every day life and some combination of the following: – Hallucinations – Delusions – Thought disorder – Movement disorder – Inappropriate emotional expression ! (DSM-IV)
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Schizophrenia Causes are not well understood but include a large biological component. Symptoms of the disorder can vary greatly. Can be either acute or chronic: – Acute - condition has a sudden onset and good prospect for recovery. – Chronic - condition has a gradual onset and a long-term course.
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Schizophrenia Positive symptoms are behaviors that are present that should be absent Two cluster of positive symptoms of schizophrenia include: 1. Psychotic 2. Disorganized
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Positive Symptoms 1. Psychotic - consists of delusions and hallucinations. Delusions: unfounded beliefs Hallucinations: abnormal sensory experiences associated with increased activity in the thalamus, hippocampus and cortex 2. Disorganized – Inappropriate emotional displays – Bizarre behaviors – Incoherent speech – Thought disorders (difficulty using and understanding abstract concepts)
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Schizophrenia Negative symptoms are behaviors that are absent that should be present. – Weak social interaction. – Emotional expression. – Speech. – Working memory. Negative symptoms are usually stable over time and difficult to treat.
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Schizophrenia Schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population and ranges in severity. Occurs in all parts of the world, but is 10 to 100 times more common in the United States and Europe than in third-world countries. More common in men than in women by a ratio of about 7 to 5. More severe and earlier age of onset for men (early 20’s versus late 20). – May be related to release of dopamine
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Twin studies suggest a genetic component, but does not depend on a single gene. Monozygotic twins have a much higher concordance rate (agreement) than dizygotic twins. But monozygotic twins only have ~50% concordance rate.
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