Isomers - • and Arrangement gives unique properties •...

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Isomers Variations in the way atoms of a molecule are put together Same molecular formula but different structure Usually have different chemical properties 3 types of isomers a) Geometric isomers a. Same molecular formula b. Same covalent partnerships c. Differ in arrangement around C=C d. Double bond does not allow free rotation b) Structural isomers a. Same molecular formula b. Different covalent arrangement c) Optical isomers a. Enantiomers, mirror images b. Require an asymmetric carbon b.i. Asymmetric- 4 different atoms or groups of atoms attached to the carbon c. 2 arrangements that are mirror images d. e. Functional Groups Attachments that replace H atoms on the C skeleton Most reactive components of molecules Most commonly involved in chemical reactions Consistent behavior from one organic molecule to another
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Unformatted text preview: • # and Arrangement gives unique properties • Our bio important ones: o Hydrophilic o Increase solubility of organic compounds in water Hydroxyl •-OH (-O-H) • Polar, hydrophilic increases solubility • Alcohols Carbonyl •-C=O • Aldehyde- end of carbon chain • Ketone- middle of carbon chain Carboxyl • COOH • Carboxylic acids • Ionized & non-ionized forms Amino •-NH 2 • Amines- act as bases • Ionized & non-ionized forms Phosphate •-OPO 3 2-• Connects to the C backbone via one of its O atoms • Ionized • 2 negative charges: 2 H + dissociated from O atoms • Transfer energy between organic molecules Sulfhydryl •-SH • Properties more or less similar to hydroxyl • Help Stabilize Structure of Proteins • Polar covalent...
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Isomers - • and Arrangement gives unique properties •...

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