The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules - b. Ketone-...

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Macromolecules Large molecules of smaller subunits Biological macromolecules o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Nucleic Acids o Proteins Monomers Polymers Dehydration synthesis reactions remove the components of a water molecule as new covalent bonds join subunits into a larger molecule Making Polymers R-OH + H-R R-R+ H 2 O R-OH + HO-R R-O-R + H 2 O Hydrolysis adds the components of a water molecule as covalent bonds are broken, splitting a molecule into smaller subunits Carbohydrates Major energy source- fuel Major structural components Monosaccharides Simple sugars- specific ratios Contain C, H, and O C n H 2n O n n = number of Carbons Attached to C skeleton o 1 Carbonyl group either aldehyde or ketone o Multiple hydroxyl groups Naming- C n H 2n O n 1) # of Carbons a. 3- triose b. 4- tetrose c. 5- pentose d. 6- hexose e. 7- heptose 2) Position of Carbonyl group a. Aldehyde- aldose
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Unformatted text preview: b. Ketone- ketose 3) Individual real names a. Ex.- glucose Numbering of Carbons Start with carbon nearest the carbonyl group Many optical isomers Many structural isomers Disaccharides Double sugars 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis Glycosidic linkage Formation of maltose 2 glucose joined together Lactose Galactose & Glucose Linkage (glycosidic linkage) Cellobiose 2 glucose molecules together Glycosidic linkage Dehydration synthesis Formula? Add atoms of 2 molecules joined Subtract H 2 O o Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O = C 12 H 22 O 11 Polysaccharides Polymers of monosaccharides Oligosaccharides- short chain of polysaccharides Used for storage & structure Polymers of glucose Cellulose Starch- plants Glucose monomers Glycogen- animals...
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The Structure and Function of Macromolecules - b. Ketone-...

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