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Ch 15 Outline - • somatic mutations – do not affect...

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Ch 15 Outline Part 1: Mutations Mutations · heritable changes in DNA—passed on to daughter cells · Multicellular organisms can have: o Somatic mutations: passed on during mitosis, but not to subsequent generations o Germ-line mutations: mutations that occur in cells that give rise to gametes · Phenotypic effects of mutations (Fig 15.1) Point Mutations addition or deletion of a base substitution of one base for another causes mistakes during DNA replication environmental mutagens radiation, chemicals, etc Types of mutations in Fig 15.2 Sickle-cell anemia results from hemoglobin defect caused by point mutation Chromosomal mutations: changes in arrangements of chromosomal DNA segments (Fig 15.4) Mutations: the good, the bad, the ugly both benefits and costs germ line mutations genetic diversity for evolution usually produce an organism that does poorly in its environment
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Unformatted text preview: • somatic mutations – do not affect offspring – can cause cancer Part 2: Molecular Medicine Restriction Enzymes • found in bacteria (defense) • cleaves DNA into fragments • recognize specific sites (restriction sites) – palindromic Gel Electrophoresis: separates fragments of DNA (Fig 15.8) • DNA placed in agarose gel • electric field is applied • DNA migrates toward positive pole—why? • smaller molecules migrate faster than larger ones DNA Fingerprinting (Fig 15.9, 15.10) Defective proteins can cause disease (Fig 15.12, 15.19) Prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation (Fig 15.14) Expanding triplet repeats (Fig 15.18) DNA Testing by allele-specific cleavage (Fig 15.20) Treating Genetic Disease (Fig 15.22) Gene Therapy (Fig 15.23)...
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Ch 15 Outline - • somatic mutations – do not affect...

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