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Unformatted text preview: Second Test in Biology for Grade 9 Topics Asexual Reproduction Definition-Form of reproduction by the creation of new individuals from/by existing individuals How is it different than sexual reproduction?-Only 1 parent is needed-Identical to mother cell-No new variation unless (mutation -> naturally or artificially -> Agriculture) Natural (5 types)-Budding outgrowth from parent-Fragmentation (Regeneration) growth from lost body part -Binary Fission splitting in 2 (BI = 2) Splitting in 2-Spore Formation opens up releases spores to make new organism -Vegetative Reproduction - without production of seeds or spores, growth from stolons or rhizomes (runners) v BBFSV Artificial (3 types)-Grafting part of one plant attached to another (pear to apple)-Cutting part of one plant is removed and re-rooted-Cloning duplicating DNA Cloning o Early investigations-Fredrick Stewart grew plant from single plant cell in 1958-Carrot -Then common grass frog-Placed in culture medium with a plant growth hormone that promoted cell division-Mass began to grow-After a few days the parts of the cell mass were transferred into another culture medium that did not contain the growth hormone. - Cell division within the new culture slowed and cells had time to change shape and start to specialize before their next cell division-Once cell mass began to specialize into cells that form the root, stem and leaves, the plant was transferred into soil o Embryo splitting (tetra)-Egg and Sperm are used to create egg-After embro grow into 8 cells, researchers split it into 4 identical...
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