2008biology test_2review

2008biology test_2review - Review Sheet DNA Chromosomes...

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Review Sheet DNA, Chromosomes, Genes, Bases What is it? -DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid carries the information necessary for normal cellular functioning - Chromosomes: long thread of DNA, a portion of genetic material - Genes: a gene is a long section of DNA that determines a characteristic -Bases: each gene is made up of a series of chemicals called nitrogen bases The different levels of organization- DNA , Chromosomes, Genes, Bases What are they? -DNA Forms a long winding shape called a helix. This helix has two main strands, so it’s a double helix carries the information necessary for normal cellular functioning is the same in all living things organized into chromosomes human cells carry 46 chromosomes - Chromosomes There are 44 ‘autosomes’ (regular) chromosomes in humans. There are 2 ‘sex chromosomes’, in a woman they are XX and in a man they are XY. - Genes There can be 1,000 genes per chromosomes. Each gene produces a protein, just like a recipe ‘produces’ a dish/meal. - Bases The four bases which form the code are called adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases appear in a particular order forming a code. Only A-T, C-G’s pair up together. Analogy to explain their relationship -DNA like a cookbook that is so large that it comes in many volumes - Chromosomes 1 chromosome is like 1 volume of a multivolume cookbook set. - Genes A gene is like a ‘recipe’ in a volume of a cookbook - Bases The bases are like the letters that spell out the words that give directions to a recipe. o Cell Cycle- What is it? The cell cycle is the cells lifespan How many stages? G1, S, G2, M, INTERPHASE- Interphase is through G1, S, and G2 It is sister chromatids when the x’s are together (in Prophase, metaphase) They are chromatin when the x’s separate and they are long and thin. (anaphase) They are chromosomes ALL THE TIME
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In telophase, it makes its way back to chromatin. o Cell Division vs. Interphase- Interphase-when the cell lives its life, does its work and grows Cell division-when the cell divides to make 2 cells at the end of its life Why is it important? Cell division is important because you need cell division for healing and tissue repair, growth, and to reproduce another organism. How and why may it differ between cells? Organization of DNA throughout the cell cycle. Mitosis What is it? Mitosis is the cycle the cell goes through when it divides. o
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2008biology test_2review - Review Sheet DNA Chromosomes...

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