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Unit Test 2 - Unit Test Genetics 2 Why Sex(Video Asexual...

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Unit Test – Genetics 2 Why Sex? (Video): - Asexual reproducers had far more parasites than those who reproduced sexually, despite being exposed to the same amount of parasites - The red queen = evolution is a race, we are running as fast as we can to stay in the same place - When a species stops adapting they are doomed - Sexual reproduction is the best way to survive a constantly evolving predator - Sex generates variability among offspring - Diversity among offspring provides a challenge to predators, disease and parasites - Some believe sex originated from two single celled organisms who met for a brief moment and exchanged cells Mendel: 1. How did ancient farmers try to improve food plants? - By saving seeds and breeding plants with one another creating a larger food source which allowed large civilizations to settle and flourish 2. Give an example of today’s hybrids that are a result of past cross-breeding. - Roses from wild roses; sheep that grew heavier wool and meats 3. What plants did Mendel work with? - Mendel worked with pea plants 4. What did Mendel choose this plant? - Wanted to learn what would happen when easily distinguishable traits would be bred between two different breeds, choosing pea plants because they matured quickly 5. How does cross-pollination work? - Transfer to the female reproductive organ 6. When two short plants are bred, what is the resulting F1 generation? - Only short offspring were produced 7. What was different when Mendel bred tall plants? - Some offspring where tall, while others were short 8. What was the result when Mendel bred pure bred tall plants with pure bred short plants? - No short plants grew at all, the trait ended after F1 9. When Mendel crossed the F1 generation, what rations were expressed in the next generation? - Exactly 1/4 th of the F1 generation were short while the rest were tall 10.What term was given to the tall ‘factor’ (allele)? - Over powered short; it was dominant 11.What term was given to the short ‘factor’ (allele)? - It was recessive because it was over powered by the tall dominant gene 12.Why is it necessary for sex cells to be haploid? - It is necessary because if they were not haploid, the number of chromosomes would increase over the generations till all cells would be full of chromosomes and would not because to function correctly 13.How does a punnett square work?
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- It works by giving dominant genes capital letters, recessive genes given lower case letters, one parent goes on the top of the punnett square, the other down the left side and then they cross multiply to show the offspring 14.What is a genotype? - The genetic makeup with respect to a specific gene 15.What is a phenotype? - The physical traits of an organism - Before his studies it was thought that offspring showed exact parent traits Predicting Offspring: - Geneticists are often interested in what offspring will be produced by a certain pairing of parents - 1. Decide on which letter will be used to represent the alleles and write ‘let’ statements to summarize the choice - 2. Record parent genotypes
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