C121 11-3 lec26GL

C121 11-3 lec26GL - Lecture 26 November 9, 2011 Bonding:...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 26 November 9, 2011 Bonding: Specific Models Last Day: I Localized Electron Bonding Models (ii) Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Examples Molecular Shape and Polarity (iii) Hybrid Atomic Orbitals (Chapter 14) Today: I Localized Electron Bonding Models (iii) Hybrid Atomic Orbitals Hybridization Bonding in Molecules Multiple bonds Hybrid Atomic Orbital Theory Recap: Lewis Structures 2-D arrangement of valence electrons in a molecule localized, two centre-two electron bonds VSEPR Theory 3-D arrangement of bonds in Lewis structure based on minimizing electron- electron repulsions localized, two centre-two electron bonds What is missing in these bonding descriptions? quantum chemistry tells us electrons occupy orbitals we need to describe the molecule in terms of the orbitals used to form its bonds we know that the only orbitals used in bonding are the atomic valence orbitals Consider CH 4 C H H H H Reality Check! molecular structure of CH 4 all bond angles are 109.5 not 90 all bond lengths are the same 109.3 pm (1.093 ) The bottom line is that the bonding in CH 4 cannot be explained by carbon using its pure atomic valence orbitals to form the bonds we have to find a way to rationalize the presence of four equivalent bonds. C H H H H We must hybridize (combine) pure valence orbitals hybridization: - a mixing or mathematical combination of atomic valence orbitals to obtain a set of equivalent hybrid orbitals (same energy, same shape, different orientations in space)...
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2011 for the course CHEM 121 taught by Professor Leech during the Fall '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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C121 11-3 lec26GL - Lecture 26 November 9, 2011 Bonding:...

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