C121 11-3 lec34GL

C121 11-3 lec34GL - Lecture 34 November 30, 2011 Properties...

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Lecture 34 November 30, 2011 Properties of Solutions Last Day: Properties of Solutions (Chapter 17) Solution Types Solution Composition Thermodynamics of Solutions Today: Properties of Solutions Solubility and Intermolecular Forces Solubility and Pressure Vapour Pressure of Solutions Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions
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Types of Solutions Alloys Steel (hard/brittle) 2% C (s) in Fe (s) Stainless steel (resists corrosion) 12% Cr (s) in Fe (s) present in lesser amount present in greater amount Solid/Solid Dental fillings mercury amalgams Hg (l) in Ag (s) liquid solid Liquid/Solid Air O 2(g) , Ar (g) , CO 2(g), are solutes in N 2(g) (80%) present in lesser amount present in greater amount Gas/Gas Carbonated drinks CO 2(g) in H 2 O (l) gas liquid Gas/Liquid Antifreeze ethylene glycol in water HOCH 2 CH 2 OH (l) in H 2 O (l) present in lesser amount present in greater amount Liquid/Liquid Saltwater NaCl (s) in H 2 O (l) solid liquid Solid/Liquid Example(s) Solute Solvent Solution
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Solution Formation – The Thermodynamic Story What is happening on a molecular level when forming a solution? We can think of solution formation as a three step process: H solute H solvent H interaction H solution
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Solubility and Intermolecular Forces H solution = H solute + H solvent + H interaction Consider, (+ve) (+ve) (-ve) Magnitude of UH interaction ~ strength of intermolecular i.e. how favourable is the interaction between solute and solvent?
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Type of Examples Soluble In Factors Affecting Solute Solubility Ionic NaCl, KNO 3 Polar Solvents Solvent dipoles +/- ions CaSO 4 , etc. Ex. H 2 O δ+/ δ- interact (H-Bonding) with ions +/- small alcohols most soluble: CH 3 OH, large anions with CH 3 CH 2 OH small charges (Table 4.1 Solubility) Covalent (i) I 2 , CCl
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2011 for the course CHEM 121 taught by Professor Leech during the Fall '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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C121 11-3 lec34GL - Lecture 34 November 30, 2011 Properties...

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