Lecturez16SHWeb - Monday Oct 17 2011 Todays Lecture Quantum...

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1 Monday Oct. 17, 2011 Today’s Lecture Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory 12.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 12.14 Further Developments -Omit 12.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 12.16 Properties of a Group Midterm- Mon., Oct 24. 6:30 pm. Lecture 16
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4 H 1 s 1 Li 2 s 1 Be 2 s 2 B 2 p 1 C 2 p 2 N 2 p 3 O 2 p 4 F 2 p 5 Ne 2 p 6 He 1 s 2 Na 3 s 1 Mg 3 s 2 Al 3 p 1 Si 3 p 2 P 3 p 3 S 3 p 4 Cl 3 p 5 Ar 3 p 6 – valence e - ’s are responsible for the chemistry • this is why elements within a group have similar properties • they have the same valence e - configuration • for example: group 1A:n s 1 2A:n s 2 7A:n p 5
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5 – for K (19 e - ’s): • expect: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 or [ ___ ] 3d 1 • actual configuration: ______ (typical of group 1A) – 4s orbitals are lower in energy compared to 3d 07_118 1 s 2 s 3 s 4 s 5 s 6 s 7 s 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 p 6 p 7 p 4 f 5 f 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 d
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6 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s
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7 3s 3p — — — 3d — — — — — 2s 2p — — — 1s H atomic orbitals 4p — — — 4s 3d 3p — — — 3s 2p — — — 2s 1s H-like atomic orbitals note: energy 3d 4s order: 1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d,5p,6s,4f,5d… Energy Energy For polyelectronic atoms
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8 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 4s 1 4s 2 4p 1 4p 2 3d 1 3d 2 3d 3 4s 1 3d 5 3d 5 3d 6 3d 7 3d 8 4s 1 3d 10 3d 10 4p 3 4p 4 4p 5 4p 6 – examine the following elements: • Ca (20 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 2 • Sc (21 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 2 3d 1 • V (23 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 2 3d 3 • Cr (24 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 (exception) • Mn (25 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 • Ni (28 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 2 3d 8 • Cu (29 e - ’s): [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 (exception) Hund’s rule Hund’s rule
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9 – Note: _____ orbitals always fill before the ___ orbitals. – 2 nd and 3 rd row transition metals have many exceptions: Ag: [Kr]5s 1 4d 10 Pt: [Xe]6s 1 5d 9 Ru: [Kr]5s 1 4d 7 Au: [Xe]6s 1 5d 10 2 nd row 3 rd row
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10 07_116 Period number, highest occupied electron level 1 H 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La* 89 Ac** 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 104 Unq 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 105 Unp 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 106 Unh 25 Mn 43 Tc 75 Re 107 Uns 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 108 Uno 110 Uun 111 Uuu 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 109 Une 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 5 B 13 Al 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 6 C 14 Si 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 7 N 15 P 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 8 O 16 S 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 54 Xe 86 Rn 2 He d - Transition Elements Noble gases Representative Elements 1A Group numbers 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A Representative Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7s 1 7s 2 7s 2 6d 1 7s 2 6d 2 7s 2 6d 3 7s 2 6d 4 7s 2 6d 5 7s 2 6d 7 6s 1 6s 2 6s 2 6p 1 6s 2 6p 2 6s 2 6p 3 6s 2 6p 4 6s 2 6p 5 6s 2 6p 6 6s 2 5d 1 4f 14 6s 2 5d 2 6s 2 5d 3 6s 2 5d 4 6s 2 5d 5 6s 2 5d 6 6s 2 5d 7 6s 1 5d 9 6s 1 5d 10 6s 2 5d 10 5s 1 5s 2 5s 2 5p 1 5s 2 5p 2 5s 2 5p 3 5s 2 5p 4 5s 2 5p 5 5s 2 5p 6 5s 2 4d 1 5s 2 4d 2 5s 1 4d 4 5s 1 4d 5 5s 1 4d 6 5s 1 4d 7 5s 1 4d 8 4d 10 5s 1 4d 10 5s 2 4d 10 4s 1 4s 2 4s 2 4p 1 4s 2 4p 2 4s 2 4p 3 4s 2 4p 4 4s 2 4p 5 4s 2 4p 6 4s 2 3d 1 4s 2 3d 2 4s 2 3d 3 4s 1 3d 5 4s 2 3d 5 4s 2 3d 6 4s 2 3d 7 4s 2 3d 8 4s 1 3d 10
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