Review for Exam 2 - Review for Exam 2 Biochemistry Ferrens...

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Review for Exam 2 Biochemistry Ferren’s Portion Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides - Aldose vs ketose – know definition and names of and be able to recognize the general formulas of aldoses and ketoses in straight chain and ring form An Aldose has a CHO group at the end and a ketose has a CH2OHC=O at the end. The anomeric carbon in an aldose is C1; in a ketose, it is C2. - Triose, tetrose, pentose, vs. hexose – know the definitions and names of These indicate the number of carbons in a sugar. A triose has 3 carbons; a tetrose has 4; etc. - Monosaccharide ID in straight chain form for aldopentoses, aldohexoses, ketopentoses, and ketohexoses Aldohexoses: All Altruists Gladly Make Gum in Gallon Tanks (Allose, altrose, glucose, mannose, gulose, idose, galactose, talose) Aldopentoses: Rabid Arabs Xylophone Linked (Ribose, Arabinose, Xylose, Lyxose) Ketohexoses: Psychotic Profs Fry Sorbid Students with Tagalong Tests (Pscicose, fructose, sorbose, tagatose) Ketopentoses: Ribulose, Xylulose - Epimer – definition of epimer and know the names of the C#2, C#3, and C#4 epimers of D-Glu An epimer is a compound that differs from another only at one chiral center, rather than all, as in an isomer. C2 epimer of glucose: Mannose; C3: Allose; C4: Galactose - Anomer – know the definitions of anomers, anomerization, anomeric carbon. Anomers are a special type of epimer that differ at the anomeric carbon. They are distinctive in that a Carbon is MADE chiral as a result of anomerization, whereas an epimer’s chiral Carbon was already chiral to begin with. They are the reason that there are alpha and beta configurations of sugars. Anomerization is the reaction that results in anomers from straight chain sugars. The anomeric carbon in an aldose is C1; in a ketose, it is C2. - Fisher projection formula - α vs β , D- vs L-, pyranose vs furanose – be able to go from straight chain to Fisher projection formula; be able to
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distinguish between α and β , D- and L-, pyranose and furanose in Fisher projection formulas D and L are designated by which way the ring goes out. If it goes to the right, it is D; if it goes to the left, it is L. An alpha and beta sugar is identified by the direction of the OH at the anomeric carbon. If the OH goes to the right, it is an alpha sugar; if it goes to the left, it is a beta sugar. A pyranose Fisher projection formula would form a 6-membered ring, including the oxygen. A furanose Fisher projection formula would form a 5-membered ring, including the oxygen. - Haworth Formula - α vs β , D- vs L-, pyranose vs furanose – be able to go from Fisher projection formulas to Haworth formulas; be able to distinguish between α and β , D- and L-, pyranose and furanose in Haworth formulas In a Haworth Formula, an alpha sugar has the anomeric OH down; a beta sugar has the anomeric OH up. A D sugar has the CH2OH “crook” up; an L sugar has it down. A pyranose has 6 members in the ring and a furanose has 5. A furanose, then, has a carbon attached to the anomeric carbon. - ID Sugar in Haworth ring for aldopentoses, aldohexoses, ketopentoses, and
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2011 for the course BCH 5045 taught by Professor Guy during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Review for Exam 2 - Review for Exam 2 Biochemistry Ferrens...

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