36 - Friday, November 19, 2010 Lecture 36 1. Quiz 9...

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Friday, November 19, 2010 Lecture 36 1. Quiz 9 results: A 23.1 B 22.9 C 24.0 2. The last quiz, the so-called "make-up quiz" on 12/1 will cover the lectures from 11/15, 11/17, 11/19, and 11/22. What level of detail? See last year's quiz 10, but be able to say what is going on at each complex, without lots of detail. 3. How to study the many facts of ox phos and photosynthesis?! Use last year's quizzes as guides The overall plan for exams is to show some step(s) and ask, "What happens?" or to ask "At which step does xxxxx occur?" 4. Today at 2:55PM in Comstock B108: Discussion with three current seniors who have had lots of medical school interview experience. Monday's lecture: . events in PSII rapid transfer of electrons from P680*, eventually to a mobile quinone; build-up of positive charge in the OEC, then oxidation of 2H 2 O 4H + are pumped from stroma into lumen for each O 2 evolved . Q-cycle occur sat Cyt-bf with H + pumping (similar to Complex III); water-soluble reduced protein product: plastocyanin . events in PSI rapid transfer of electrons from P700*, eventually to reduce the protein ferredoxin and produce NADPH in the oxidoreductase enzyme; . the “Z-Scheme” shows all the intermediates of PSII, Cyt bf complex, and PSI, arranged in a chart according to reduction potential . the H+ gradient that is created at PSII and Cyt-bf is used by the chloroplast to synthesize ATP (in a very similar manner to that in mitochondria) Today's lecture: p. 249 biosynthesis = anabolism The focus so far has been energetics : We have looked at how sugars, fats and amino acids are oxidized to produce ATP. This is catabolism. We have also studied how energy of sunlight is trapped in ATP and NADPH. Now we are going to examine biosynthetic pathways. We look first at the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, then lipids, and last nitrogen-containing compounds. We begin our study of biosynthesis with gluconeogenesis . Gluconeogenesis literally means "new glucose formation." It is new glucose formation from non-sugar precursors, rather than interconversion of existing sugars.
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Some tissues do not store fat. These tissues primarily use glucose for energy needs: Brain and nerves use 3/4 of the body's glucose for energy. They store no fat at all. Red blood cells also store no fat, and so use glucose. While skeletal muscle cells do store fat, they also use glucose. There is enough glucose stored as glycogen for only about one day's needs (at "low power"). Therefore, the body must continuously synthesize glucose. 90% of gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver . Gluconeogenesis, like glycolysis, is an ancient pathway. It is a nearly identical metabolic pathway for almost all of life: microorganisms, plants, and animals. p. 250
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36 - Friday, November 19, 2010 Lecture 36 1. Quiz 9...

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