The Effects of Temperature and pH of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme on Optimal Condition

The Effects of Temperature and pH of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme on Optimal Condition

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The Effects of Temperature and pH of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme on Optimal Condition Abstract The rate of product formation of an enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, was measured by determining the optimal pH and temperature in order to form the maximum amount of product. We hypothesized that since alkaline phosphatase enzyme work best in alkaline solutions and in a boiling point of 100° C, the optimal pH would be basic for the enzyme because it exists in living tissues to function and that the optimal temperature would be close to normal body temperature because lower pH will denature the enzyme of alkaline phosphatase. The effect of pH and temperature on the enzyme reaction was measured by the use of a spectrophotometer and the color of the solution changed from clear to yellow. First, six test tubes were filled with water, substrate and a different pH of buffer. Second, the enzyme was added and recorded for the amount of product formed. Also, eight test tubes were filled with buffer and substrate and are placed in different temperatures. At last, enzyme was added and recorded for the amount of product formed. The reaction rate decreased as the pH of buffer decreased from 10, and at a higher pH, the reaction rate decreased as well. It was correctly determined that the optimal pH for an enzyme to react and produce the most product was at a pH of 10 and that the optimal temperature for an enzyme to react and produce the most product was at a temperature of 37° C, and that while an enzyme still forms product above and below these standards, the enzyme will not react to full potential unless at its optimum level. In conclusion, pH and temperature affect enzyme-catalyzed reactions by either speeding up or slowing down the rate of reaction. Introduction
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Enzymes, by definition are proteins that speed up the chemical reaction. They lower the activation energy needed to start a reaction. A substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrates. In the case of a single substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site , and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products , which are then released from the active site. The pH of a chemical reaction can affect enzymes depending on its pH value. High or low pH values, whether they are acidic or basic, can cause the enzyme to be completely inactive through the process called denaturation. This behavior is due to the [H+] and [OH-] in buffer solution acid-base groups of the amino acids contained in the enzyme interacting with the amino acid content (Sinex, 2000). It involves the change in structure of the enzyme, which stops the substrate from binding to the active site of the enzyme, making the enzyme useless. The pH level can also change the shape of the active site in an enzyme because of ionic bonding. Temperature affects enzyme activity by changing the three-dimensional structure of the
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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The Effects of Temperature and pH of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme on Optimal Condition

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