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Bio 101 Chapter 2 Notes

Bio 101 Chapter 2 Notes - Chemical Compounds Inorganic...

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9/14/11 Chemical Compounds Inorganic compounds Small, simple substances Biologically important groups include water, simple acids, and bases, and simple salts Organic Compounds Generally large, complex carbon Elements Substances that can’t be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions Each element has a chemical symbol Four elements (O, C, H, and N) make up more than 96% of the mass of most organisms Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium are present in smaller quantities Atoms Smallest unit of an element that retains that element’s chemical properties Subatomic particles: Electron carries a unit of negative electric charge Proton carries a unit of positive charge Neutron is an uncharged particle Protons and neutrons compose the atomic nucleus Isotopes Isotopes: atoms of the same element with varying numbers of neutrons Radioisotope: unstable isotope that emits radiation that can be detected by autoradiography on photographic film Practical application: Tracers in research Medicine: for diagnosis or treatment Atomic Orbitals and Energy
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