chapter 13 review - Attribution Theories Attribution is the...

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Attribution Theories •Attribution is the set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and that of others. Heider 1958 Internal attributions are explanations based on one’s individual’s characteristics. External attributions are explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would influence anyone. To make internal attributions for people’s behavior even when we see evidence for an external influence on behavior. AKA: correspondence bias: a tendency to assume a strong similarity between someone’s current actions and his or her dispositions. Culture often dictates whether internal or external attributions will be made. The Actor-Observer effect: When explaining our own behavior (actor) we tend to use external attributions. We use internal attributions when explaining people furthest from us (e.g. celebrities.) Self-serving biases: we take credit for our own successes (good grades=hard work) and blame the situation for our failures (bad grades=unfair test.) Self-handicapping strategies: putting ourselves in situtaions that will result in failure, so we can blame failure on the situation (e.g. partying the night before a test for which you have not really studied.) Examples Consensus Information (how the person’s behavior compares with someone else’s behavior) “Normal:” situational, external. “Abnormal” – personality, internal.
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