Psych study guide exam 2

Psych study guide exam 2 - Psych Study Guide SENSATION AND...

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Psych Study Guide SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 1. Sensation: The conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system; the detection of stimuli 2. Perception: The interpretation of that information 3. Parts and function of the eye: - Pupil: an adjustable opening in the eye - Iris: the colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil o Light that passes through the eye passes through a layer of vitreous humor (jellylike substance) to strike the retina - Retina: A layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball - Cornea: A rigid transparent structure on the outside of the eyeball - Lens: Just below the cornea: can bend and vary in thickness to allow for accommodation of objects at different distances - Fovea: Central area of the human retina; adapted for highly detailed vision. Greatest density of receptors 4. Receptors and functions of receptors - Located in the retina, in the back of the eyeball; very sensitive and very specialized - Cones: Adapted for color vision, daytime vision. Only 5% of total receptors, but far more axonal connections to brain: send much more information. The fovea is all cones - Rods: Adapted for vision in dim light – not color 5. Parts of the ear - Sound waves hit eardrum which cause it to vibrate - Eardrum connects to 3 tiny bones: hammer, anvil, and stirrup - Stirrup vibrates last, and transfers vibrations to the cochlea o Contain fluid filled canals o Also contain receptors for hearing, which are hair cells - These hair cells connect to neurons which transmit signals to the brain. 6. How sound is defined - Ear is technically known as pinna - Mammalian eat converts sound waves into mechanical displacements along a row of receptor cells - Sound waves are vibrations of air or another medium - Frequency: the number of cycles (vibrations) a sound wave goes through in a second (hertz/Hz) - Loudness: amplitude of sound waves: intensity - Adult humans hear sound waves from 15Hz to 15000Hz - Lower frequencies simply vibrate hair cells, while higher frequencies use volleys; group of hair cells respond. Highest frequencies only vibrate hair cells at a certain place (very highest, stirrup end.) Called Place Principle. - We detect where sounds are coming from simply by calculating difference in time to each ear 7. Types and cause of deafness - Conduction deafness: bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. Can be repaired surgically
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- Nerve deafness: Diseases, heredity, exposure to loud noises destroy either cochlea or efferent neurons. Cannot be surgically repaired. Hearing aids help COGNITION AND LANGUAGE 1. Differences between attentive and pre attentive processes - Nude guy at a party vs. nude guy at a nudist beach: context - Very easy to spot the nude guy at a party: pre attentive process - Find a specific nude guy at the nudist beach: much more difficult – requires attention: attentive process (where’s waldo) 2. Algorithms and heuristics
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  • Spring '08
  • Staff
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Sex linkage, Circadian rhythm, hair cells, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

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Psych study guide exam 2 - Psych Study Guide SENSATION AND...

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