Anatomy Exam 1 Lecture Notes

Anatomy Exam 1 Lecture Notes - Anatomy Lecture 1 Tues Sept...

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Anatomy Lecture 1 Tues. Sept. 6 th Depiction of the history of life Phylogeny- evolution history of group of organisms depicted by creating a phylogenetic tree - incorporating time and anatomy - Y axis shows time from older increasing up to younger depicting time - X axis depicts the degree of anatomical change over phylogeny Bifurcations indicate a. genealogy- ancestor descendent relationships b. divergence: anatomical change over time Ancestor descendent relationships: The point of bifurcation can tell the “common anscestor: Colloquial usage- ancestral “primitive” D vs. descendent “advanced” A What comparisons do we make? - explains the ancestor-descendent path - requires a complete fossil record o Comparison of ancestral vs. derived as well as assumes those that branded earlier retained more ancestral characteristics Classification - will comprise of hierarchal nesting of taxonomic names - Taxon- (singular) Refers to a group of organisms that comprise a unit of classification (species, family, class) - Taxa- plural Defining types of taxa 1. Taxon should contain ALL descendants of common ancestor a. Call this MONOPHYLETIC 2. Taxon excludes a descendant from a common ancestor a. Call this PARAPHYLETIC (doesn’t include all the groups) 3. Taxon does not descend from a common ancestor but from several ancestors a. Call this POLYPHYLETIC b. *Convergence among multiple branches Tree to know: Echinodermata Hemichordata- Includes two “protochordata” (Pterobranchia and Eteropneusta) Chordata- Contain two Protochordata ( Urochordata and Cephalochordata) and the vertebrata only lone group in chordata Lecture 1 Key terms to Understand: Phylogeny Phylogenetic Tree
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Graph depicting a Phylogenetic Tree Bifurcations Genealogy Divergence Common ancestor Ancestor dependent relationships Colloquial usage The comparisons we make Classification in general Taxon,taxa Defining and 3 types of taxa o Monophyletic o Paraphyletic o Polyphyletic o *Convergence Important, Critical Tree for each phylum we study Anatomy Lecture 2 Terminology, Phylogeny, The Chordates (partial, finish in lecture 3) * Terminology- Anatomical relationships with respect to space - Anatomical terminology o Anterior-before o Posterior- after o Cranial- skull o Caudal- tail o Superior- above o Inferior- below o Dorsal- back o Ventral- belly o Medial- middle of body o Lateral- side o Proximal- nearest o Distal- away from - Body Axes o Longitudinal- anterior to posterior o Dorso-ventral- dorsal to ventral o Right to left- right to left - Body Planes- divide a bilateral body… o Cross-section- anterior and posterior o Sagittal- left and right
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o Frontal- dorsal and ventral - Body planes o Longitudal- axes DV and LR o Dorso ventral- axes L and DV o Right left- axes L and LR Reference point changes for bipedal- use superior and inferior in humans because bipedalism Homology- Structure inherited from shared ancestor= it is or it isn’t, no grey area - QUANTITATIVE not qualitative -
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