Module 8 biological and environmental influence on devlopment

Module 8 biological and environmental influence on devlopment

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Human Development and Family Studies 362 Development of the Young Child Pages 51-88 Lecture 8: Biological and environmental influences on development Alcoholism, Shyness, aggression, religiosity, heterosexuality, depression___Which are most genetically influenced? *Everything is partly genetic, even religiosity just smaller What is a gene? - unit of hereditary information - Blueprint for development - each species has its own genetic code - humans have aprox. 100,000 distinct genes - I. Phenotypes/Genotypes Definitions Genotype- refers to the genetic make up of a person, the sum total of all the genes, people do not alway mirror their genotype (ex-intellegence, a child could be born with a set of genes that would make it exceptionally smart, but for instance say it wasn't provided the right nutrition (environment) would undercut the expression of the genes. Phenotypes- Refers to a person's observable characteristics (both appearance and behavior) -Determined by a person's genetic make up and environmental experiences - Sum total of all genes that are actually expressed through behavior and/or appearance - of most interest to developmental psychologists, for instance how their appearance affects how they are treated and affects their self esteem. II. Genetic foundations of development Genetic distribution among family members 50% overlap among parents with children and with brothers and sisters 25% overlap with aunts/uncles, nieces/nephews 12.5% first cousins Monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins What is the difference? Monozygotic twins- result from the fertilization and subsequent division of a single ovum or egg - always the same sex -1 out of 270 births Dizygotic- result from fertilization of TWO SEPaRATE eggs or ova and TWO separate sperm No more genetically similiar than other siblings -1 out 60 births Who is most likely to give birth to fraternal twins?
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course HDFS 362 taught by Professor Professor during the Spring '04 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Module 8 biological and environmental influence on devlopment

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