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Module 12 Child Birth

Module 12 Child Birth - Human Development and Family...

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Human Development and Family Studies 362 Development of the Young Child Lecture 12: Childbirth I. Stages of childbirth Stage 1: Labor/Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix Lasts 12-14 hours w/ 1 st birth and 4-6 w/ later births Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix takes place Transition Phase occurs when cervix is open or dilated 7-8 cm As uterine contractions gradually become more frequent and powerful, they cause the cervix to open (dilate) and thin (efface), forming a clear channel from the uterus into the birth canal, or vagina The climax of this stage is a brief phase called transition , in which the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely Most uncomfortable part of labor Mother must relax If she tenses or bears down with her muscles before the cervix is completely dilated and effaced, she may bruise the cervix and slow the progress Stage 2: Delivery of newborn baby Lasts about 60 minutes for 1 st baby and 20 for later births strong contractions continue frequent and long lasting, but mother also feels natural urge to push and squeeze with abdominal muscles, forcing the baby down and out crowning – the vaginal opening had stretched around the entire head baby is wet with amniotic fluid and still attached the umbilical cord when cord stops pulsing, it is clamped and cut Stage 3: Delivery of placenta Final pushes cuase the placenta to separate from the wall and be delivered in about 5-10 minutes inspected for appearance and completeness, if it has normal appearance then the oxygen was good, if not then good clue for bad things, look to see if its complete or torn to see if there are potential problems, if part of placenta is still in body from being torn off she can get very sick and have an infection II. Apgar Scale Assessment of newborn’s physical condition only color of skin pink vs blue, reflex irritability, muscle tone, heart rate, respiration good if the baby has a good hard cry Measure of 5 characteristics are made at 1 min and at 5 mins Hearrate, repiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color A combined score of 7 or better indicates good condition range is between 0-10 Between 4-6 means the baby requires assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs possible problems If the score is 3 or lower the baby needs emergency medical attention 2 readings are given because some babies do not adjust well at first, but do quite well after a bit
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III. Medical interventions Fetal monitoring particularly for heart rate Electronic instruments that track the baby’s heart rate during labor Most US hospitals require continuous fetal monitoring Used in 80% of US births Most common is strapped across mother’s abdomen throughout labor More accurate method involves threading a recording device through cervix and placing it directly under the baby’s scalp Most infants have some irregular heartbeat during labor, and critics worry that fetal
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Module 12 Child Birth - Human Development and Family...

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