APY248 April29 Notes

APY248 April29 Notes - April 29, 2010 early technologies...

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early technologies used plasmid - able to find a gene, slice it, and add it to a plasmid. (ex. insert factor 8 and a producer of human insuli) .. find a gene for human insulin through bacterium. they have the ability to divide and divide rapidly, and have the potential to replicate human insuline for us. diabetics who required insulin originally had to get it from pig insulin, which is not identical to human insulin (but still life saving) in fact it was in 1982 that the federal drug agency (FDA) approved the first gene clone medical product , human insulin which they called "humalin". this was a great benefit to individuals who had diabetes requiring insulin, exactly the same as the human body's version. since then, a number of useful proteins have been produced the same way including Fact 8 and human growth hormone. the development of Factor 8 protein was a real advance because prior to that, people were getting Factor 8 from blood donations and many got AIDS as a result. other useful proteins have been developed in a similar way. there was a good deal of interest over the possibility of gene therapy . it had been known for quite a while that individuals with hereditary defects (lacking enzymes) could be treated by giving them the correct enzyme. body sees the enzyme as a source of amino acids! though that gene therapy might be around that. .. would add gene to person to make particular enzyme. this idea came out as early as 1971. however, there were a number of obstacles that had to be overcome. Rare disorders such as (adenosine deaminase deficiency, SCID(?)) . . one who has both rarely survives at all ADD - SCID - individual has no functioning immune system by the late 1980's it was clear that there were still problems (technical) with gene therapy. .. mainly getting the proper gene to insert into the proper cell type, as well as getting it to remain there and integrate into the cell . otherwise when the cell divides, it will simply get lost. vectors are things that are used to get the dna into their proper cells. retro viruses have been used because they have the ability to be transcribed into the dna and integrated into the host cell's dna. if you could attach a good human gene into a retrovirus, you have a very good chance of integrating the gene into the dna. have been successfu. still, there are additional problems. "
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APY248 April29 Notes - April 29, 2010 early technologies...

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