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APY248 Summary of Cancer Genetics

APY248 Summary of Cancer Genetics - Summary of cancer...

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Unformatted text preview: Summary of cancer genetics A number of normal proteins regulate gene expression, cell difi‘erentiation and cell division. Positive and negative regulation — need for balance — proto—oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Inappropriate activation of a prom-oncogene or loss of a tumor suppressor gene leads To inappropriate expression - leading to cancerous transformation. Activation of a proto~oncogene 1. point mutation 2. amplification 3. activation by a DNA virus 4. activation by translocation 5. activation by incorporation into a retrovirus (RNA virus) Inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene 1. loss or alteration of both alleles 2. binding to a DNA viral protein Overexpression of an antisapoptosis gene Inherited forms of cancer retinoblastoma Li Fraumeni syndrome — p53 faulty DNA repair — four ('2) loci —- one form of colon cancer (HNPCC) neurofibromatosis (NF T) BRCA1 and BRCA2 — faulty repair of double stranded DNA breaks xeroderma pigmentosum — faulty DNA repair .O‘P‘PP’NE“ ...
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