APY106 Test 1 Review

APY106 Test 1 Review - Part One Essay In class, Dr. Stevens...

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Part One – Essay In class, Dr. Steven’s presented what he considers the three “levels” of culture. Discuss each, with careful discussion of its meaning and significance to the anthropological study of people. Give at least one specific illustration from the course material, and identify the source. The three levels of culture are ethnographic (a culture/society), ethnological, and biological. Ethnography is anthropology discription of a particular contemporary culture by means of direct field work. They tend to be discriptive and focus on a single culture. For example, one may live in the Saharrah desert to observe the customs of the people (lecture?). Dr Andreatta, while serving president of the Society for Applied Anthropology, conducts her own applied research among fishermen on the North Carolina coast. Ethnology is the study of cultural similarities and differences (comparison). They use the data collected by other ethnographers, and generalize across many cultures. Subjects for ethnologists include: the lifeways of the Inuits living in the Artic tundra, Greek peasants, Maasai herdsmen in Tanzania, and the residents of a retirement home in southern california. Biological is the study of human physical variation and how humans adapt due to the environment. The anthropoligist may study gentics, population biology (interrelationships between population characteristics and environments) or epidemiology (study of occurrence, distribution, and control of disease in populations). All of these are significant to anthropology and the study of cultures; how societies adapt, interact with eachother, and survive. (Textbook) How/ why are we justified into looking for underlying biological bases for culture? If we want to deduce an evolutionary biological basis for culture, of what significance is the fact of cultural universals , to our investigation? Make reference to course material. We are justified into looking for underlying biological bases for culture because physical variation helps certain populations/ races adapt to their environment. Genetics (the study of inherited physical traits), population biology (the study of interrealtionships between population characteristics and environments), and epidemiology (the study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of disease in populations) are all looked into by anthropologists, to figure out how certain societies adapted to certain environments. Some examples of human variation are: populations with the greatest amount of melanin are found in tropical regions, while lighter skinned live in the northern regions; africans tend to have sickle-celled to protect themselves from malaria; dark skinned people in tropical areas becase it protects people from ultraviolet light. Cultural universals (those general cultural traits found in all societies of the world), means that humans are able to develop differences (or solutions) to different environmental and cultural situations. Each culture has developed its own set of solutions to the universal human problems.
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APY106 Test 1 Review - Part One Essay In class, Dr. Stevens...

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