APY106 Test 3 Review

APY106 Test 3 Review - - - Consider Wallaces four forms of...

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- Consider Wallace’s four forms of religious organization and locate each type within one of our “levels” of social-cultural complexity (foragers, pastoralists, horticulturalists, chiefdom/states). For each, explain your location, in terms of correlations with features of society. Four forms of religious organization are individualistic, shamanistic, communal, and ecclesiastical. Individualistic cults are the least complex form of religious organization, in which each person is his or her own religious specialist. Small-scale band societies still practice it. This is practiced through the vision quest where they establish relationships with spirits who provide them with knowledge, power and protection. An example would be the Plain Indian cultures – pregnant woman fasts and in a vision sees a weed which will give a painless delivery; crow warrior would go to a place frequented by supernatural spirits, then strip off clothes, smoke, and abstain from eating or drinking; animal spirit adopted person and gave them gift. Shamanistic cults are forms of religion in which part time religious specialists (shamans) intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients; this occurs in tribal areas. Found in arctic and subarctic regions, Siberia, Tibet, Mongolia, etc. Shamans’ contact spirits while in altered state of conscious brought on by smoking, taking drugs, drumming, chanting. Communal cults are societies in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community; found in horticulture/pasteralism which will be Chiefdom. These rites are performed occasionally by non-specialists. Example may be ancestral ceremonies among traditional Chinese, puberty rites found in sub-Saharan Africa, etc. Example may be rites of passage in Kenya – into adulthood Ecclesiastical cults are highly complex religious systems, employing full time clergy; this is found in industrialism, centralized State society. Examples include societies with pantheons of several high gods (Aztecs, Incas, Greeks, and Egyptians) or monotheistic religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism). Priests are part of hierarchical or bureaucratic organization under the control of a centralized church or temple; often controlled by central government - Discuss three different instances of “baseball magic” and for each, indicate and explain which of Steven’s “principles of magic” are operating. Then, briefly describe one example of one of these principles in Stevens’ online article on “urban witchcraft”. In “baseball magic”, it explains how it is all about luck for pitchers and hitters; magic associated with luck and chance. Divided into ritual, taboo, and fetish. Ritual: clothing is often crucial, wear same clothes after a winning game and also
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APY106 Test 3 Review - - - Consider Wallaces four forms of...

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