K4-3%20Tenses-exerc-1 - Germ 433 A. Obrien Kapitelgruppe 4...

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Germ 433 – A. O’brien Kapitelgruppe 4 – 3 (pp. 211) Tenses – Notes – Übung Lutherstädte - von Wittenberg nach Eisenach | Video des Tages (5 min) (in German) TEXT: Gottes Speise (p. 212) annotated below Perfekt (the perfect tense): Function The Perfekt is used primarily as a tense to relate past-time events in conversational German. You will also find it in (news) reports and in letters rather than in narratives. It expresses that events, which began or happened in the past may continue on, or be relevant for the present or the future. The Imperfekt , in contrast, marks events that are clearly terminated in the past. Die Eltern haben den Jungen in den Wald ge schick t . The parents have sent the boy into the forest. Die Nacht hat den Jungen überfall en . The night has come over the boy. In der Nacht ist ein großer Schnee herab ge komm en . During the night there was a big snow storm. The Perfekt is a compound tense (you know this from the English perfect tense as well) that is, it is a combination of an auxiliary or helping verb with a past participle ( has gone ). As you can see from the above examples it employs the present tense of the auxiliary, usually “haben” and occasionally “ sein with the past participle of the verb; one can summarize the structure of this tense as follows: Perfekt = Present tense of Auxiliary + Past Partticiple. Analysis of the past participle of weak verbs and irregular weak (mixed) verbs Past participles are invariable: each verb has only one past participle; no endings are added to the past participle. Identifying past participles is very simple for weak verbs and irregular weak 1
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(mixed) verbs: If you see a form with the prefix ge- and the suffix –(e)t it is probably a past participle of a weak verb or an irregular weak (mixed) verb. schicken: ge + schick + t = geschickt fragen: ge + frag + t = gefragt hören: ge + hör + t = gehört The form of a past participle can be summarized in a simple “formula” as follows: ge + [verb stem] + (e)t = past participle Between the prefix ge- and the suffix -(e)t you will find the stem of the verb – this is important to know when you don’t know the word and you want to look it up in the dictionary. You then have to transform the stem into the infinitive (as you already know: take the stem and add the - en ); then you can look up the infinitive in the dictionary. To summarize the process: You find the past participle gehört -> You separate the participle in its components: ge + hör + t You take the stem hör and add the - en to get the infinitive. You identify the cognate to hear . The –t at the end is called a tense marker and indicates that we are relating past-time events; all verbs that are known as weak verbs or irregular weak (mixed) verbs employ this tense marker –t when forming past tenses. Here are a few more examples for weak verbs:
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course GERM 433 taught by Professor O'briean during the Spring '11 term at The University of British Columbia.

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K4-3%20Tenses-exerc-1 - Germ 433 A. Obrien Kapitelgruppe 4...

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