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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 245 Abnormal Notes Introduction Case1: Tom is uncomfortable riding escalators. As a result, Tom avoids using escalators. Case2: Rachel has been caught urinating in her bedroom. Case3: Ricky was arrested last week because he was found painted blue and sitting naked in a tree. What is abnormal behavior? o Dysfunction: breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning EX: intense fear; compulsions Butdysfunctional responses may be appropriate o Statistical infrequency: rare; at ends of bell-shaped curve (height, intelligence) Butgreat intelligence, great athletic ability Some disorders arent that rare o Violation of norms: not culturally expected; would make most others uncomfortable EX: talking to imaginary voices Butnorms change Butsocial reformers, protesters, prostitutes o Personal distress: causes great distress; suffering EX: person with bulimia, alcohol addiction Butdisorders without distress (mania, psychopathy) Butdistress doesnt mean disorder (hunger, childbirth) o Impairment: significantly interferes with work, relationships, etc. EX: substance abuse affecting job performance Butdisorder might not mean impairment in the day-to-day (certain phobias) o Unexpectedness: an unexpected response (out of proportion) to the situation EX: complicated bereavement; anxiety disorders Butmight not know the whole story o Four Ds: dysfunctional, distressing, deviant, and dangerous Chapter 1: Historical Context Psychoanalytic model o Definitions and origins: Comprehensive theory of development and structure of personality Based on Freuds observations of patients Structure of mind, defense mechanisms, etc. o Structure of the mind: Id: basic urges/drives (sexual libido, aggressive) We all have these Level of awareness: unconscious Pleasure principle = immediate gratification Superego: conscience; societal values Level of awareness: unconscious act in accordance with values without thinking about them Moral principle Psychology 245 Abnormal Notes Ego: balances id and superego Level of awareness: conscious Reality principle Warring ID and SUPEREGO unconscious intrapsychic conflicts EGO mediates between desire for immediate gratification and demands of reality/environment/societal constraints o Explaining psychopathology: Unconscious conflicts that arent successfully resolved: EGO cant balance IDs demands with the worlds reality (ID too strong acting out, aggressive disorders; SUPEREGO too strong anxiety disorders) o Implications for treatment: Cause: unconscious unresolved conflicts Treatment: reveal conscious awareness and resolve conflicts; not symptom-focused Techniques: free association (say what first comes to mind); dream analysis Classical psychoanalysis: extensive Psychodynamic psychotherapy:...
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