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Chapter 3 Cells - Chapter 3 Cells 3.1 All organisms are...

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Chapter 3 Cells3.1 All organisms are made of cells- The most basic unit of any organism is the cell-Cell: The smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all thenecessary functions of life- Robert Hooke was the first to use the term cell- 3 dimensional structure- Contains DNA- Eggs, the most visible cell- All plants and animals are made entirely of cells- Every cell arises from the division to another cell- The average human is made up of at least 60 trillion cells-Cell theory: (1) All living organisms are made up of one or more cells and (2) all cellsarise from other, pre-existing cells- Unifying theory and universally accepted- All life and all cells have been produced by a continuous line of cells3.2 Prokaryotic cells are structurally simple, but there are many typesof them- Every cell breaks into 2 basic categories1.Eukaryotic Cell: Has a central control called a nucleus, which contains the cell’sDNA. Organisms composed of eukaryotic cells are calledeukaryotes2.Prokaryotic Cell: Does not have a nucleus; DNA resides in the middle of the cell.Organisms consisting of a prokaryotic cell is called aprokarytoe- Prokaryotes…- First cells on earth- One-celled organisms and invisible- 4 Basic Structures1. Plasma/Cell Membrane: Encompass the cell. Anything inside theplasma is referred to as “intracellular” and everything outside is “extracellular”2. Cytoplasm: Jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell3. Ribosomes: Granular bodies where proteins are made, and scatteredthroughout the cytoplasm4.Each prokaryote has one or more circular loops/linear strands of DNAUnique Features…
- Contain rigid cell wall-Cell Wall: Protects and gives shape to the cell- Contain flagellum-Flagellum: Long, thin, whip like projection that rotates like a propellerand moves the cell through the medium- Contain pili-Pili: Hair-like projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces-Bacteria can fuel activities in the presence/absence of oxygen- Bacteria, largest type of prokaryote3.3 Eukaryotic cells have compartment with specialized functions- Everything visible is a eukaryotic organism- Not all eukaryotes are multi-celluarEx: Protista, single celled, visible only with a microscope- Nucleus, chief distinguishing feature- Contain other specialized structure, calledorganellesthat are enclosed separatelywithin lipid membranes in the cytoplasm- Organelles enable eukaryotic cells- Creation of separate compartments with distinct areas where different chemicalreactions can occur simultaneously-Endosymbiosis Theory: Explains the presence of 2 organelles in eukaryotes(chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals)-Chloroplastconvert sunlight into a more usable form of energy-Mitochondriahelp harness the energy stored in food molecules- Endosymbiosis is supported by observations…1. Chloroplast and Mitochondria have small amounts of DNA2. Chloroplast and Mitochondria are similar in size to prokaryotic cells

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Term
Spring
Professor
Goschke

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