Chapter 3 Cells

Chapter 3 Cells - Chapter 3 Cells 3.1 All organisms are...

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Chapter 3 Cells 3.1 All organisms are made of cells - The most basic unit of any organism is the cell - Cell : The smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all the necessary functions of life - Robert Hooke was the first to use the term cell - 3 dimensional structure - Contains DNA - Eggs, the most visible cell - All plants and animals are made entirely of cells - Every cell arises from the division to another cell - The average human is made up of at least 60 trillion cells - Cell theory : (1) All living organisms are made up of one or more cells and (2) all cells arise from other, pre-existing cells - Unifying theory and universally accepted - All life and all cells have been produced by a continuous line of cells 3.2 Prokaryotic cells are structurally simple, but there are many types of them - Every cell breaks into 2 basic categories 1. Eukaryotic Cell : Has a central control called a nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA. Organisms composed of eukaryotic cells are called eukaryotes 2. Prokaryotic Cell : Does not have a nucleus; DNA resides in the middle of the cell. Organisms consisting of a prokaryotic cell is called a prokarytoe - Prokaryotes… - First cells on earth - One-celled organisms and invisible - 4 Basic Structures 1. Plasma/Cell Membrane : Encompass the cell. Anything inside the plasma is referred to as “intracellular” and everything outside is “extracellular” 2. Cytoplasm : Jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell 3. Ribosomes : Granular bodies where proteins are made, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm 4. Each prokaryote has one or more circular loops/linear strands of DNA Unique Features…
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- Contain rigid cell wall - Cell Wall : Protects and gives shape to the cell - Contain flagellum - Flagellum : Long, thin, whip like projection that rotates like a propeller and moves the cell through the medium - Contain pili - Pili : Hair-like projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces - Bacteria can fuel activities in the presence/absence of oxygen - Bacteria, largest type of prokaryote 3.3 Eukaryotic cells have compartment with specialized functions - Everything visible is a eukaryotic organism - Not all eukaryotes are multi-celluar Ex: Protista, single celled, visible only with a microscope - Nucleus, chief distinguishing feature - Contain other specialized structure, called organelles that are enclosed separately within lipid membranes in the cytoplasm - Organelles enable eukaryotic cells - Creation of separate compartments with distinct areas where different chemical reactions can occur simultaneously - Endosymbiosis Theory : Explains the presence of 2 organelles in eukaryotes (chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals) - Chloroplast convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy - Mitochondria help harness the energy stored in food molecules - Endosymbiosis is supported by observations… 1. Chloroplast and Mitochondria have small amounts of DNA 2. Chloroplast and Mitochondria are similar in size to prokaryotic cells
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Goschke during the Spring '07 term at Cal Poly.

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Chapter 3 Cells - Chapter 3 Cells 3.1 All organisms are...

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