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Chapter 5 DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology

Chapter 5 DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology - Chapter...

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Chapter 5 DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology 5.1 “The DNA 200”—Knowledge about DNA is increasing justice in the world - DNA, molecule that all living organisms carry in every cell of the body - Unique - Serves as an individual identifier 5.2 The DNA molecule contains instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms - Series of experiments revealed 2 important features of DNA 1. Molecules of DNA passed down from parent to offspring 2. Instructions on how to create are encoded in the DNA molecule - DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Nucleic acid, a macromolecule that stores information - Consists of individual units called nucleotides -Nucleotides have 3 components 1. Molecule of sugar 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogen containing molecule called a base - Described as a “double helix” - 2 distinct strands - Shapes of backbones that make DNA twist - Sugars and phosphates hold everything in place - Nitrogen containing bases attaches to each sugar - 4 different bases 1. Adenine (A) 2. Thymine (T) 3. Cytosine (C) 4. Guanine (G) - Backbones have bases protruding from each sugar - Base pairs form the rungs of the ladder - C and G, A and T - Each DNA always has the same numbers of base pairs - DNA sequence is described by writing the sequence of bases on only 1 of the strands 5.3 Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins - DNA embodies the instructions for building the cells/structures for every single living organism on earth
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- Full set of DNA present in an individual organism is called genome - In humans/eukaryotes DNA exists as many smaller, more manageable pieces, called chromosomes - Chromosomes vary from species to species - Gene: Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries information necessary for producing a functional product - Each gene is the instruction set for producing one particular molecule, usually a protein - Individuals have slightly different instruction sets for a given protein, results from a different version of the same characteristic - Alternative versions of a gene that code for the same feature are called alleles - Any single characteristic or feature of an organism is referred to as a trait 5.4 Not all DNA contains instructions for making proteins - There is no relationship between the size of an organism’s genome and the organism’s complexity - The amount of DNA present exceeds the amount necessary to code for all of the proteins in the organism - Proportion of base sequences in DNA do not code for anything and have no purpose, called junk DNA Ex: Bacteria and viruses
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Chapter 5 DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology - Chapter...

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