Pediatrics Comprehensive Final Review

Pediatrics Comprehensive Final Review - Pediatrics...

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Pediatrics Comprehensive Final Review Thoughts on Death: Infants and Toddlers (0-3yrs) – Little to no concept of death; mirror parents emotions; toddlers have egocentric thinking that prevents understanding of death Preschoolers (3-4yrs) - Magical thinking allows them to believe that their thoughts can cause death, makes them feel guilt or shameful; thinks separation from parents is punishment for bad behavior; views dying as temporary since no concept for time School Age (6-12yrs) - Begins to respond logical or factual explanations; begins to have an adult concept; fear of death, unknown, disease process & loss of control; may be Adolescents (12-20yrs) - Adult-like concept of death; may have difficulty accepting death; may feel isolated; may now communicate with parents; may be more stressed with Ways children express their grief 1. Behavior 2. Emotions 3. Physical Reactions 4. Thoughts Reaction to death: o Infants - Crying, searching for mom, afraid to sleep/eat o Preschoolers - Irritable/tantrums/fighting, fear of separation/clingy, anxiety, regression, magical thinking o Schoolage - Depression/mood swings/withdrawl, fear of being rejected, supported emotions, fantasies of reunion or longing, resentment o Adolescents - Feelings of betrayal, resentment, guilt, anger & risk taking, distant from parents & friends, Increased or Decreased school activities, withdrawl appetite & sleep changes, avoidance of feelings, crazy physical complaints, fear of death Cardiac Anomalies- Signs & Symptoms
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Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) - Loud, harsh murmur that is not usually audible until about 4-8 weeks of age; heart failure; failure to thrive Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) - Loud harsh murmur, mild heart failure, possible enlarged right atrium, Increased O2 sat in right atrium Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)- Machine like hum , wide pulse pressure, bounding pulses Pulmonary stenosis - Systolic ejection murmur, right ventricular enlargement, exercise intolerance, cyanosis with severe narrowing Aortic Stenosis - murmur, left ventricular enlargement, chest pain, exercise intolerance, weak, thread pulses, hypotension, dizziness, and syncope Coarctation of the aorta - Increased blood pressure and oxygen sat in the upper extremities compared to the lower extremities, nosebleeds, headaches , vertigo, leg pain, weak or absent lower extremity pulses Transposition of the great arteries - murmur, severe cyanosis appearing hours to days after birth , cardiomegaly, heart failure Tricuspid atresia - No blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle, severe cyanosis within hours of birth , heart failure, chronic hypoxemia, failure to thrive and growth retardation Tetrology of Fallot - Murmur, cyanosis, severe dyspnea, clubbing of the fingers, hypercyanotic spells , acidosis, polycythemia, clot formation, frequently assuming squatting position , failure to thrive, growth retardation
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course NA na taught by Professor Na during the Spring '11 term at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.

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Pediatrics Comprehensive Final Review - Pediatrics...

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