This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7 Chapter 2 • Independent vs. Dependent variables o Independent “cause” Predictor Systematically varied by the researcher o Dependent “effect” Outcome Their values are presumed to depend on the influence of the independent What the researcher wishes to explain • Operational vs. Conceptual definitions, conceptual fit o Operationalization How exactly the concept will be measured The process of translating vague, abstract constructs into something that can be measured How do we know if we’ve done a good job? • Internal validity Two types of operational definitions: • Measured – specifies how to measure a variable • Experimental – explains how an investigator has manipulated a variable. Forces researcher to express abstract concepts in concrete terms o Conceptual (constituitive) What the concept means for purposes of investigation • Levels of measurement o Nominal Variable is measured merely with different categories Categories must be: • Mutually exclusive o Each measurement is appropriate to only one category • Exhaustive o Each measure accounts for every possible option Examples: • Numbers on football jerseys • License plates • Social Security numbers • Classifying respondents according to the medium they depend on most for news o Ordinal Measured with rank – order categories Tell you placement, but not how far apart Examples • Lower class, Middle class, Upper class • Rankings of sports teams • Restaurant rankings • Beauty pageant results o Interval Measurement points with equal distance between them No true zero • Example: difficult to conceive of a person having zero intelligence or zero personality Examples: •...
View Full Document
- Fall '11
- researcher, Simple random sample