hybridization in main group elements

hybridization in main group elements - Hybridization in...

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Hybridization in Main Group Elements One of the distinguishing features between the elements of period 2 and the heavier elements is the pronounced capability of the light elements to form multiple bonds. The valence bond description of multiple bonds involves the formation of hybrid orbitals. (In molecular orbital theory the corresponding feature is the mixing of s and p orbitals into particular molecular orbitals.) Hybridization is favorable, if - the atomic orbitals are close in energy and - the atomic orbitals occupy the same region of space (overlap). Average potential energies of s and p orbitals. (left figure, Miessler/Tarr, Inorganic Chemistry) Radial expectation values of s and p orbitals. (right figure, W. Kutzelnigg, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1984, 23, 272-295.) The first graph shows that the s and p orbitals of the elements in period 2 are separated more widely in terms of energy than the s and p orbitals of the heavier elements. This feature alone would imply that hybridization is more favorable in heavier elements.
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