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Finally, the able general Septimius Severus (r. 193-211) of Pannonia (the Balkans) was acclaimed  by his legions and defeated other claimants. Arriving in Rome, he held Pertinax's funeral, and  then abolished the Praetorian Guard as a separate, independent force, and now selected his  personal guard from out of his own legion troops. From this date, guard service in the palace was  no longer reserved to men of Italian birth. After fruitless wars against the Parthians, Septimius  ruled from Palmyra (Syria) and Carthage (N. Africa). He and his son Caracalla (211-17)  disregarded senatorial prerogatives, and equalized citizenship status of all free men in Roman  lands. Army supporters consented to rule of ineffective Severi relatives through to 235.  Major geopolitical changes from the 220s exerted transformative stresses on the Roman system. 
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  • Fall '08
  • Murphy
  • Praetorian guard, general Septimius Severus, ineffective Severi relatives, Danube limes. Sarmatians, violent barbarian incursions, uneasy status quo

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