During the long reign of Theodosius II (408-450), the Huns had become a real threat to the heartland of the Eastern Roman Empire. Raids began in 441, in Pannonia as well as along the Danube, staved off only by Constantinople's consent to paying more tribute to the Hun leader Attila. In 447, Hun armies returned to imperial lands, in two simultaneous thrusts. While one went directly to Constantinople, the other thundered through Macedonia, as far south as Thermopylae in Epirus. Though the capital's walls prevented Hun penetration, the Huns did defeat an imperial army near Gallipoli. Attila extracted yet another increase in annual tribute from Theodosius, who died in 450. Theodosius had produced no male heir, so his daughter Pulcheria married Marcian, a senator and retired officer from Thrace. Seen as unobjectionable by Constantinople elites, he was accepted as
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Patriarch alone. Church, Roman Empire. Raids, Hun leader, Hun armies, Hun penetration