In the ninth century the Carolingian empire continued its disintegration

In the ninth century the Carolingian empire continued its disintegration

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In the ninth century the Carolingian empire continued its disintegration, and Viking and Norman  raids extended to inland regions of Spain, France, and Italy on a nearly yearly basis, while rising  Muslim naval activity in the central Mediterranean further imperiled trade and Italian polities.  Eventually, the Normans established statelets in Northwestern France, Apulia, and Sicily. In the  latter two instances the Normans displaced Muslims: the first hints of Reconquista/Crusading  fervor. These processes brought about a severe localization of European power, evidenced by the  emergence of feudalism, based upon personal bonds of vassalage, and a manor system organizing  agricultural production and rural security. Bishoprics also became prominent in providing  administration, justice, and moral guidance. From the 600s onward, the Papacy expanded  hierarchically, demonstrating an increased independence from Constantinople manifested in  doctrinal differences and near schisms in the ninth century. Monasticism arose, energizing the 
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In the ninth century the Carolingian empire continued its disintegration

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