In the West -...

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In the West, while Lombards and other various tribes held Italy in uneasy alliances, the three- way split of France between the Burgundians, Visigoths and Franks had been decided in favor of  the latter, in the form of the Merovingian dynasty of Clovis and his sons (482-560s). Continual  partitioning under descendants, dynastic infighting, and the sheer limits of seventh-century  coercive force, contributed to disintegration of central control, whereby provincial counts took  localized power for themselves, and Palace deputies usurped much of the power of the  consistently young-dying Merovingian kings. One mayor, Pepin II, subdued his counterparts in  other Merovingian lands and united the realms. His son Charles Martel, in addition to defeating  the Muslims at Tours (732), extended family control further to the East. His son Pepin III  dethroned the last Merovingian with church support, then was invited into Italy to curtail  Lombard harassment of the Papacy. Given the title 'Protector of the Romans' by Pope Stephen II  (752), the emerging dynasty cultivated ties with the Church, utilizing its spiritual authority, 
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course HIST 1320 taught by Professor Murphy during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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In the West -...

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