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Unformatted text preview: Along with continuing sentiment in favor of Ali, dissension began to permeate the Islamic state during the tenure of Caiph Uthman (644-656). He was a member of the leading branch of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, the branch that had actively opposed Muhammad's mission prior to 632. He reasserted the tribal aristocratic prerogatives, appointing family-members to nearly every possible position, among them Muawiya as governor of Syria. When Uthman was assassinated by soldiers from Egypt, some members of the Ummayad branch suspected the new Caliph Ali as the chief conspirator. Muawiya became the standard-bearer of this group, openly rebelling against the Iraq-based Ali by 658 as an anti-Caliph. They eventually met in battle, and though Ali's forces were prevailing, he agreed to arbitration. The arbitrators were disposed towards Muawiya, so the proceedings did not go well for Ali. By 661, on Ali's death, Muawiya was able Muawiya, so the proceedings did not go well for Ali....
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- Fall '08