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Unformatted text preview: Having made great advances by 800, the cause of Christianity was injured greatly by Carolingian decline, Viking and Magyar raids, as well as by feudal chaos. As well, it was inherently difficult to maintain moral excellence at all times in a world of material need and temptation. As regards the 'secular' or non-monastic church, the first half of the ninth century demonstrated a rally, yet by 900 and after, it had become inseparable from feudal dynamics. French bishop Hincmar in Reims had tried to temper the martial and moral abuses of post-Charlemagne kings, often rebuking their behavior for its effects on lay and clerical people alike. The Pope Nicholas I (858- 867)--the only noteworthy Pope of the century--asserted Rome's primacy both versus Constantinople as well as regards secular rulers in the West. For him, only the Pope, as exemplary leader of Christendom, could and should judge the moral conduct of man, including...
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- Fall '08