In the eighth century

In the eighth century -...

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In the eighth century, Europe witnessed a new invasion in the west, that of Arab and Berber  Muslims into Spain. A migration of sorts, it was less destructive. Still, carrying a developing  culture and universalist religious message, the Islamic arrival markedly altered Iberia's  civilization. Perhaps it was a fourth wave of migrations, but of a decidedly civilized nature. The  real fourth wave of Barbarian incursions into Europe occurred with the Viking and Magyar  invasions that hastened Carolingian decline. They cut short the flowering of a first medieval  European civilization, and were punishing to its culture in a way unlike the previous 200 years.  And though the Varangians and Normans would become a part of European society, the majority  of Vikings would return to the North after their conversion to Christianity. While some have  called the Vikings 'traders not raiders', this seems to exaggerate their commercial tendency  directed mostly at the Black Sea and Constantinople region. More probably Vikings themselves 
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In the eighth century -...

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