Matters improved under Pepin III and Charlemagne, when both the Church and secular monarchs exhibited a confluence of interest in mutual support. Monasticism was of further importance to Christendom in its role as a missionary force. The first instance of this was in Britain, after which the new adherents became the most dynamic force in Christianizing the semi-Christian countryside of Gaul as well as the still pagan expanses of eastern Germany and beyond. As can be seen here, after resolving doctrinal controversies in the 4-500s, four major goals motivated Western Christendom during this period: a) establishing the primacy of Rome and the Pope both within the Church hierarchy and vis-a-vis secular rulers who would meddle in religious affairs; b) establishing Papal temporal authority in regions of Italy in such a way that foreshadowed
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