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Rome - Rome':itsbishops,thePopes,'s .'searly...

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Rome's claim was somewhat different: its bishops, the Popes, came to insist on their See's  preeminence  and ability to define doctrine for all of Christendom. Relying on Christianity's early  sacred history, advocates for Rome, held that St. Peter had been invested with supremacy over the  Church by Christ himself. In turn, Peter had been Bishop of Rome, and all Popes were his  successors, inheriting his prerogatives and superiority. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (248-58) had  first articulated such an idea, and Pope Damasus had made it official Western policy in 382,  responding to the Constantinople Council of a year earlier, when Rome had not been sufficiently  recognized. The idea was that Roman primacy did not rest on any decision of a group of clerics,  but on Christ's 'promise' to Peter. 
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