The second phase was under Charles Martel

The second phase was under Charles Martel -...

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The second phase was under Charles Martel, who in both civil conflict and wars along the  southwestern and northeastern frontiers, began to use armored cavalry. This method of warfare  was much more expensive than infantry combat, and relatively few warriors could afford to  sustain themselves. Charles began to assemble his own retinues. He would personally support a  portion of them by providing them shelter, food, and arms in his own residence. By far the larger  group was granted lands to sustain them, called benefices, or fiefs ( feodum ). In both cases, these  warriors became  vassi dominici -- vassals of the lord based upon an oath of absolute fidelity. This  oath made sense when there was no impersonal law common to all in the realm. Such oaths of  vassalage most likely bonded lesser nobles to Charles and Pepin III as well. Consultation and  consensus with these nobles was integral to the Carolingian rise, until Charlemagne was  supreme.  The third phase was attendant upon Carolingian decline and foreign invasions from the 830s. In  the political anarchy of civil wars and Viking-Magyar marauding, only armed force through 
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The second phase was under Charles Martel -...

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