Individualism - reason humans could arrive at truth and...

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Individualism One of the cornerstones of the Enlightenment, a philosophy stressing the recognition of  every person as a valuable individual with inalienable, inborn rights. Mercantilism The economic belief that a favorable balance of trade—that is, more exports than  imports—would yield more gold and silver, and thus overall wealth and power, for a  country. Governments tended to monitor and meddle with their mercantilist systems  closely, which Scottish economist  Adam Smith  denounced as bad economic practice in  his  Wealth of Nations.   Philosophes The general term for those academics and intellectuals who became the leading voices  of the  French Enlightenment  during the eighteenth century. Notable philosophes  included  Voltaire , the  Baron de Montesquieu , and  Denis Diderot . Rationalism Arguably the foundation of the Enlightenment, the belief that, by using the power of 
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Unformatted text preview: reason, humans could arrive at truth and improve human life. Relativism Another fundamental philosophy of the Enlightenment, which declared that different ideas, cultures, and beliefs had equal merit. Relativism developed in reaction to the age of exploration, which increased European exposure to a variety of peoples and cultures across the world. Romanticism A movement that surfaced near the end of the Enlightenment that placed emphasis on innate emotions and instincts rather than reason, as well as on the virtues of existing in a natural state. Writers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe both contributed greatly to the development of Romanticism....
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