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Throughout the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

Throughout the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries...

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Throughout the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, Venice was assailed at sea  by the Ottoman Turks and on land by the so-called Holy League against Venice, which  sought to knock Venice from its pedestal of arrogance. The city survived the onslaught,  however, by relying on its strength in sea trade.  Milan, the most northern of the major Italian city-states, came to dominate the Po River  valley. The city's strategic location along trade lines and as a gateway to Italy from the  north necessitated a strong military state. Due to the need for strong leadership, Milan  became a strong monarchy under a succession of powerful dukes. The Visconti family  ruled as dukes almost continuously from 1317 to 1447, maintaining the stability of the  volatile region through military might. At the height of their power they controlled nearly  all of northernmost Italy. In 1447 the last Visconti died, and the Milanese attempted to 
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