Gradually -...

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Gradually, complaints in the salons and coffee shops changed from idle whining into  constructive political thought. Especially after the works of John Locke became  widespread, participants at the salons began to discuss substantive political and social  philosophies of the day. Before long, cutting-edge thought in a variety of disciplines  worked its way into the salons, and the French Enlightenment was born.  By the early 1700s, coffee shops, salons, and other social groups were popping up all  over Paris, encouraging intellectual discussion regarding the political and philosophical  status of the country. Moreover, members of these groups increasingly clamored to read  the latest work of leading philosophers. These nontraditional thinkers came to be known  as the  philosophes , a group that championed personal liberties and the work of Locke  and Newton, denounced Christianity, and actively opposed the abusive governments 
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Gradually -...

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