Kant -...

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Kant’s work with skepticism perfectly sums up the German Enlightenment’s mistrust of  empiricism. The  Critique  suggests that we all are born with our own ideas and  perceptions of the world and, as such, can never know what is “real” and what is “our  perception.” In other words, reality is in the eyes of the beholder. However, because  nothing really exists separate from its existence in the eyes of the observer, then  perceptions and observations in the world cannot be trusted. As a result, empirical  evidence cannot be trusted either. By thus stating that only a select few universal truths  in the world were valid, Kant effectively disagreed with the premise of the entire French  Enlightenment. Kant also tried to define morality, another timeless philosophical question, in  Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals  (1785). In this work, he argues that reason  must be the basis for moral action and that any action undertaken out of convenience or  obedience cannot be considered moral, even if it is the right thing to do. Rather, the 
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course HIST 1320 taught by Professor Murphy during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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Kant -...

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