Motivations direct and energize behavior

Motivations direct and energize behavior - Motivations...

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Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative. [2] Theories Theories about emotions stretch back at least as far as the stoics of ancient Greece, as well as Plato and Aristotle . We also see sophisticated theories in the works of philosophers such as René Descartes , [4] Baruch Spinoza [5] and David Hume . Later theories of emotions tend to be informed by advances in empirical research. Often theories are not mutually exclusive and many researchers incorporate multiple perspectives (theories) in their work. Somatic theories Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The theory lost favor in the 20th century, but has regained popularity more recently due largely to theorists such as John Cacioppo , António Damásio , Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. [ citation needed ] James–Lange theory Main article: James–Lange theory William James , in the article "What is an Emotion?", [6] argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish
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psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the James–Lange theory. This theory and its derivatives state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says "the perception of bodily changes as they occur is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and neither we cry, strike, nor tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be." [6] This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced. [7] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy , dance therapy ). Some people may believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: e.g. "I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The James–Lange theory, conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation (running away and crying happen before the emotion), and then we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve to explain and organize our own actions to us. The James–Lange theory has now been all but abandoned by most scholars. [8] Tim Dalgleish (2004) [9] states the following: The James–Lange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that
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changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James–Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583) The issue with the James–Lange theory is that of
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Motivations direct and energize behavior - Motivations...

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