P303 Chapter 1

P303 Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introducing Health Psychology...

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Chapter 1 – Introducing Health Psychology The Changing Field of Health A century ago, Health = absence of disease In early 1900s, people’s diseases were the result of contact with impure water, contaminated foods, or sick people. Medicine had few cures to offer. Duration of diseases was relatively short. People feel limited responsibility for contracting a contagious disease because such disease was not controllable. That situation has changed. During 20 th century, health challenges shifted from infectious diseases to those diseases related to unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles Effective treatments developed to cure many diseases, but technological development were expensive. Cost of medical care increase, so it’s important to educate people about how behaviors could lower their risk of being sick As a result of these trends, new definition of health emerged. Regarding health as the presence of positive well-being, not merely the absence of diseases This new definition led people in health care field to advocate a broader perspective on health and disease, questioning the old “traditional biomedical model” Patterns of Disease and Death Major change in patterns of disease and death during 20 th century Shift in leading causes of death. Infectious disease WERE leading causes of death in 1900 Over the next several decades, chronic disease became the leading cause of death. During the last few years of 20 th century, death from chronic disease (related to healthy lifestyle) began to decrease. Death from disease not closely related to behaviors began to increase. o Cause of Death 1900, leading cause of death was rotted in public/community health problem. During 20 th century, most death related to individual behavior and lifestyle Recent trends indicate a decrease in mortality from diseases associated with individual behavior and lifestyle. (e.g. death decreased from heart disease, cancer and stroke) For those causes of death that have recently increased , behavior is a less important component than for those causes that have decreased. (e.g.significant increase in Alzheimer’s disease, influenze and pneumonia, kidney, septicemia, and Parkinson’s disease.)
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Age is an important factor in mortality. So ranking of death vary among different age groups. Thus, the ranking of causes for death for the whole population may not reflect any specific age group and may lead people to misperceive the risk for some ages. The leading cause of death might not be the leading cause of death for young people. As people age, they become more likely to die, so the cause of death for older people dominate the overall figures for causes of death. Young people show very different patterns of mortality o Ethnicity, Income and Disease US is NOT among the top 10 nations in the world in terms of life expectancy. (rank 14
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course PSY-P 303 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '11 term at Indiana.

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P303 Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introducing Health Psychology...

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