P303 Chapter 3

P303 Chapter 3 - P303 Chapter 3 Seeking Health Care...

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P303 Chapter 3 – Seeking Health Care Adopting Health Related Behaviors Theories of Health Protective Behaviors Theory of health-seeking behavior should o (1) generate research, o (2) organize and explain observation, o (3) guide the practitioner in predicting behavior Health psychologist often use theoretical models to meet each of these criteria These model includes: Health Belief Model Theory of reasoned action Concept of Planned behavior Precaution Adoption Process Model o Health Theories A combination of set of variables thought to influence people’s behavior which are then used to predict a specific behavior o Some Example of “health seeking” behaviors Annual physical exam Cancer Screening Examinations Condom use Sunscreen Use Quitting smoking PCP visit when symptoms are present Vaccinations Mental Health Treatment Visiting Emergency Room o Health Belief Model (HBM) Assumes that beliefs are important contributors to health seeking behaviors Include four beliefs that should combine to predict health-related behaviors: 1. Perceived susceptibility to disease 2. Perceived severity of the disease 3. Perceived benefits of health enhancing behaviors 4. Perceived barriers to health enhancing behaviors (including financial cost) Each of these factors play a part in patient’s decision to seek assistance HBM corresponds with common sense in many ways. When people perceive that they are susceptible to a severe illness, can benefit from specific behaviors, can overcome barriers, they should be guided by their own self0interest and actively seek health care. Common sense, does not always predict health related behaviors
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This model ignored the ethnic differences Critics argued that HBM emphasizes motivational factors too heavily and behavioral factors too little, thus will never be a completely adequate model of health behavior o Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Assume that people are reasonable and make systematic use of information when deciding how to behave They think about the outcome of their actions before making a decision to engage or not in a particular behavior TRA assumes behavior is directed toward goal / outcome and people freely choose those action that they believe will move them closer to that goal Immediate determinant of behavior is the intention to act or not to act Intention, are shaped by two factors 1. Attitude toward the behavior Determined by beliefs that the behavior will lead to positive / negative valued outcomes 2. Subjective Norm Shaped by one’s perception of the evaluation that a particular individual places on that behavior and one’s motivation to comply with norms TRA also consider the relative weight of personal attitudes measured against subjective norms Initial intention could be mixed ( social influence can differ from individual beliefs, the resulting intention depends on the “relative importance of attitude and subjective norm”. Researcher found that this theory is useful for predicting safe and unsafe
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course PSY 303 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '11 term at Indiana.

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P303 Chapter 3 - P303 Chapter 3 Seeking Health Care...

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